A Comparative Study of Visual Assessment Between Dry Bone,2-Dimensional Photograph, and Deep Learning Methods in Sex Classification on the Auricular Area of the Os Coxae in a Thai Population

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Pittayarat Intasuwan; Vimonrath Taranop & Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh


Sex assessment is an important process in forensic identification. A pelvis is the best skeletal element for identifying sexes due to its sexually dimorphic morphology. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the visual assessment in dry bones as well as 2D images and to test the accuracy of using a deep convolutional neural network (GoogLeNet) for increasing the performance of a sex determination tool in a Thai population. The total samples consisted of 250 left os coxa that were divided into 200 as a 'training' group (100 females, 100 males) and 50 as a 'test' group. In this study, we observed the auricular area, both hands-on and photographically, for visual assessment and classified the images using GoogLeNet. The intra-inter observer reliabilities were tested for each visual assessment method. Additionally, the validation and test accuracies were 85, 72 percent and 79.5, 60 percent, for dry bone and 2D image methods, respectively. The intra- and inter-observer reliabilities showed moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.54 - 0.67) for both visual assessments. The deep convolutional neural network method showed high accuracy for both validation and test sets (93.33 percent and 88 percent, respectively). Deep learning performed better in classifying sexes from auricular area images than other visual assessment methods. This study suggests that deep learning has advantages in terms of sex classification in Thai samples.

KEY WORDS: Sex estimation; Auricular area; Os coxa; 2D image; Deep learning.

How to cite this article

INTASUWAN, P.; TARANOP, V. & MAHAKKANUKRAUH, P. A comparative study of visual assessment between dry bone, 2- dimensional photograph, and deep learning methods in sex classification on the auricular area of the os coxae in a Thai population. Int. J. Morphol., 40(1):107-114, 2022.