Liliana Yamile Franco Londoño; Ana María Maya Giraldo; Juan Gustavo Diosa Peña & Luis Miguel Ramírez Aristeguieta
SUMMARY: The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanical behavior of the healthy dental structure of a human mandibular first premolar subjected to functional and dysfunctional forces in different directions. It was sought to understand, under the contemplated variables, the areas of stress concentration that lead to structural damage of its constituents and adjacent tissues. The 3D model of the reconstruction of a CT file of a lower first premolar was made, which included enamel, dentin, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone considering three variables: direction, magnitude and area of the applied force. The direction was directed in three vectors (vertical, tangential and horizontal) under four magnitudes, one functional of 35 N and three dysfunctional of 170, 310 and 445 N, applied to an area of the occlusal and/or buccal face of the premolar that involved three stabilizing contacts (A, B and C) and two closing stops. The results obtained explain the phenomenon of combining three vectors, four magnitudes and an area of force application, where the values of effective equivalent Von Mises stress show maximum values from 60 MPa. The maximum tension values are located under the horizontal load at 170 N and in the masticatory process in the cervical area, when the force exceeds 60%. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the reaction of tissues to functional and dysfunctional forces varies according to the magnitude, direction, and area of application of the force. The stress values turn out to be higher under the application of dysfunctional forces both in magnitude and in direction, producing significant tensile stresses for the dental and cervical periodontal structure, while under functional loads applied in any direction, no damaging stresses are generated. . This supposes the recognition of the power of structural detriment of the tooth and periodontium against centric and eccentric bruxism.
KEY WORDS: Finite element model; Tooth; Chewing; Occlusal forces; centric bruxism; eccentric bruxism; abfraction; Structural strength; Modulus of elasticity.