Osteological Study of the Parietal Foramen in the Adult Human Skull Bones and its Clinical and Surgical Correlations

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Rasha M. Salama; Hamad Alsaykhan & Azza I. Farag


Parietal emissary foramina (PEF) are small holes, which are localized between the middle and posterior thirds of the parietal bone posterior surface close to the sagittal suture. PEF are important structures that protect the parietal emissary vein, which passes through it. During neurosurgery procedures, parietal foramina (PF) knowledge is crucial. This work aimed to evaluate presence and location of the PF in the skull of an adult human. Moreover, measure the distance amidst PF and the sagittal suture's midline to ascertain its clinical repercussions. 74 adult human skulls, without gross pathology, were observed for the PF's existence. The PF's and sagittal suture's midline distance were measured. According to the PF patterns of presence, five groups were distributed. Finally, specimens were photographed and subjected to statistical analysis. The PF was absent in 7 skulls (9.5 %). There were 9 skulls (12.2 %) exhibited central parietal foramen where the parietal foramen lies on the sagittal suture. 17 skulls (23 %) showed right unilateral parietal foramen, whereas 15 skulls (20.3 %) demonstrated left unilateral parietal foramen. The final 26 skulls (35.1 %) exhibited bilateral parietal fora- men. This descriptive study supplies valuable information of PF variations, which is crucial for neurosurgeons in modifying surgical techniques and procedures to alleviate injury to PF-emerging structures such as emissary veins.

KEY WORDS: Human skull bones; Parietal foramina; Sagittal suture; Parietal emissary vein.

How to cite this article

SALAMA, R. M.; ALSAYKHAN, H. & FARAG, A. I. Osteological study of the parietal foramen in the adult human skull bones and its clinical and surgical correlations. Int. J. Morphol., 41(3):831-837, 2023.