Respiratory Muscles: Structure, Function and Relationship with the ACE Gene. A Brief Morphofunctional Communication

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Rodrigo Muñoz-Cofré; Ignacio Roa; Mariano del Sol; Daniel Conei; Rodrigo Lizama-Pérez; Alejandro Pacheco Valles & Máximo Escobar-Cabello


Pulmonary ventilation is a mechanical process in which the respiratory muscles act in coordination to maintain the oxygenation of the organism. Any alteration in the performance of these muscles may reduce the effectiveness of the process. The respiratory muscles differ from the other skeletal muscles in the vital support that they provide through rhythmiccontractions. The structure and energy system of the muscles are specially adapted to perform this function. The composition of the respiratory muscles is exceptional; they are small, and present an abundant capillary network, endowing them with a high aerobic level and resistance to fatigue. Coordinated regulation of the local renin-angiotensin system provides proper blood flow and energy supply in the myofibrils of the skeletal muscle tissue. Specifically, this performance will depend to a large extent on blood flow and glucose consumption, regulated by the renin-angiotensin system. The angiotensin converting enzyme is responsible for degrading kinins, which finally regulate muscle bioenergy and glucose between the blood vessel and the skeletal muscle. The objective of this review is to describe the structure of the respiratory muscles and their association with the angiotensin converting enzyme gene.

KEY WORDS: Respiratory muscles; Embryology; Histology; Anatomy; Energy support; Renin-angiotensin system; Angiotensin converting enzyme.

How to cite this article

MUÑOZ-COFRÉ, R.; ROA, I.; DEL SOL, M.; CONEI, D.; LIZAMA-PÉREZ, R.; PACHECO V. A. & ESCOBAR-CABELLO, M. Respiratory muscles: structure, function and relationship with the ace gene. A brief morphofunctional communication. Int. J. Morphol., 41(2):675-685, 2023.