Developmental Characteristics of Younger School-Aged Boys in Relation to the Socio-Economic Environment

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Rasid Hadzic; Elvira Niksic & Katarina Dragutinovic


The main goal of this research was to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the anthropometric characteristics of fourth grade elementary school students, who live in different demographic environments in Montenegro. The research was conducted on a sample of 120 students, fourth grade elementary school, male (60 students from urban areas and 60 students from rural areas). To measure anthropometric characteristics, 12 measures were applied (Body height, arm length, leg length, shoulder width, elbow diameter, knee diameter, body weight, upper arm circumference, lower leg circumference, skin fold of the back, skin fold of the upper arm, skin fold of the abdomen). After conducting research with the application of appropriate statistical procedures: descriptive analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was noticed that there is a statistically significant difference in the treated space of anthropometric characteristics. Boys from rural areas are more dominant than boys from urban areas in the longitudinal and transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and in volume on certain body segments, and boys from urban areas are more dominant than boys from rural areas in body weight and subcutaneous fat, which puts them at risk for obesity.

KEY WORDS: Anthropometric characteristics; Students; Primary school; Urban and rural environment.

How to cite this article

HADZIC, R.; NIKSIC, E. & DRAGUTINOVIC, K. Developmental characteristics of younger school-aged boys in relation to the socio-economic environment. Int. J. Morphol., 41(1):90-95, 2023.