Can Paricalcitol Increase the Effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine in Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Prophylaxis in Rats? A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

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Yasar Yildirim; Veysi Bahadir; Emre Aydin; Fatma Yilmaz Aydin; Zülfükar Yilmaz; Aydin Ketani; Ibrahim Kaplan; Mehmet Cudi Tuncer; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu & Mehmet Emin Yilmaz


N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is used for contrast induced acut kidney injury (CI-AKI) prophylaxis because of its antioxidant effects. Paricalcitol, which has reno-protective effects, is likely to provide a more effective prophylaxis when added to NAC treatment. The study was designed based on this hypothesis. The study was organised to include 4 groups each consisting of 7 rats. Group 1 was the control group, and Group 2 included rats with CI-AKI. Rats in Group 3 were administered NAC at a dose of 100 mg/kg via oral gavage once a day for 5 days. Rats in group 4 were administered paricalcitol at a dose of 0.4 mcg/kg once a day for 5 days in addition to NAC. CI-AKI was induced after the treatments in both groups. The study was terminated on the sixth day. Samples were collected from the rats’ sera and kidney tissues to study oxidant and antioxidant parameters; kidney function tests were also studied. There were significant differences between the contrast nephropathy group (Group 2) and NAC and NAC+paricalcitol groups with respect to serum urea and creatinine levels. When the same groups were compared regarding oxidant (TOS-MDA) and antioxidant (TAC-Paraoxonase) parameters, we observed that the oxidant parameters increased in serum and kidney tissue samples with NAC use, and that effect was strengthened by the addition of paricalcitol to NAC treatment. However, despite increased antioxidant effectiveness, we observed no decrease in urea and creatinine levels when paricalcitol was added for CI-AKI in rats. There was no significant difference between Group 3 and Group 4. Paricalcitol provides a more potent antioxidant effect in both serum and kidney tissue samples when added to NAC treatment in rats with CI-AKI. Despite increased antioxidant parameters, however, paricalcitol does not provide a significant decrease in urea and creatinine levels.

KEY WORDS: CI-AKI; Paricalcitol; NAC; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants.

How to cite this article

YILDIRIM, Y.; BAHADIR, V.; AYDIN, E.; AYDIN, F. Y.; YILMAZ, Z.; KETANI, A.; KAPLAN, I.; TUNCER, M. C.; KADIROGLU, A. K. & YILMAZ, M. E. Can paricalcitol increase the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in contrast induced acut kidney prophylaxis in rats? A biochemical and histopathological study. Int. J. Morphol., 40(4):1060-1066, 2022.