Özkan Yükselmis & Isılay Sezen Ermis
Peripheral nerve damage (PNI) can cause demyelination, axonal degeneration and loss of motor and sensory function. Melatonin with its antioxidative effect, has been reported to reduce scar formation in nerve injury, take a role in repair process by suppressing fibroblast proliferation in the damaged area. It was aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin in the repair of peripheral nerve damage and the relationship between S100 proteins and angiogenic regulation. Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the Defect group, 6 mm tibial bone defect using a motorized drill was created and kept immobile for 28 days . In Defect + graft group, tibial bone defect with allograft treatment was applied and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft + Melatonin group, melatonin was administered to defect + allograft group. All rats were sacrified by decapitation, skin and tibia bone were removed then fixed with 10 % neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin, sections were examined under light microscopy. In the Defect+Graft group, enlargement and occlusion of the vessels with degeneration of the epineural sheath, thickening of the endoneural sheath and mild hyperplasia of schwannocytus (Schwann cells) were remarkable. In the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, the epineural sheath was tight and regular, the axonal structures were prominent in the endoneural area. Mild S100 expression was observed in Defect+Graft group in fibers of the endoneural region with a prominent expression in schwannocytus. In Defect+Graft+Melatonin group (10mg/kg), S100 expression was moderate in areas where schwannocytus proliferated and nerve-connective tissue sheaths were reconstructed. VEGF expression was moderate in endoneural, perineural and epineural connective tissue sheaths in the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, with negative expression in blood vessel endothelial cells, but with a positive expression in schwannocytus. We conclude that with the application of melatonin; oxidative stress decreases, schwannocytus proliferation increases, having positive influence on nerve repair with the regulation of S100 signaling and angiogenetic structuring.
KEY WORDS: Periferal nerve; Tibia Defects; S100 protein; VEGF; rat.
YÜKSELMIS, O. & ERMIS, I. S. Effect of melatonin on peripheral nerve damage resulting from tibial defect in rats. Int. J. Morphol., 40(4):1035-1042, 2022.