Morphometric Analysis of the Mandibular Lingual Foramina Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Elderly Korean

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Sun-Kyoung Yu; Jinwoong Lim; Christopher J. Bae; Yo-Seob Seo & Heung-Joong Kim


The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic characteristics of the lingual foramen and lateral lingual foramen using cone-beam CT in elderly Korean. Cone-beam CT images were obtained from 80 Korean older than 50 years (mean age, 65.2 years). The prevalence of the lingual and lateral lingual foramina at the lingual aspect of the mandible was determined. The diameter and height to the upper margin of the foramina from the mandibular inferior margin, and the bone height to the alveolar crest from the mandibular inferior margin were measured. In addition, the location of the lateral lingual foramen, the direction of its canal, and the presence of communication with the mandibular canal were evaluated. All of elderly Korean possessed at least one lingual foramen, with two or three foramina occurring in 77.5 % of Korean. A lateral lingual foramen was observed in 91.3 % of Korean, with the prevalence being highest at the second premolar in dentulous cases (21.6 %; 33/153). The very high frequencies of these foramina were attributable to high frequencies of relatively small-diameter inferior lingual foramen and lateral lingual foramen in the incisor region. The prevalence of a large-diameter (≥1 mm) superior lingual foramen was high, at 31.0 %. A large-diameter lateral lingual foramen in the premolar region occurred at a frequency of 17.0 %; communication with the mandibular canal was observed in 70.0 % of these cases. These quantitative data on the lingual and lateral lingual foramina of the mandible provide valuable information that could help to avoid surgical complications during implant placement in elderly Korean.

KEY WORDS: Lingual foramen; Lateral lingual foramen; Elderly Korean; Cone-beam CT.

How to cite this article

YU, S. K.; LIM, J.; BAE, C. J.; SEO, Y. S. & KIM, H. J. Morphometric analysis of the mandibular lingual foramina using cone-beam computed tomography in elderly Korean. Int. J. Morphol., 40(3):688-696, 2022.