Golden Ratio for the Foramen Magnum On CT Images: A Morphological and Morphometrical Study

Tweet about this on TwitterShare on FacebookEmail this to someoneShare on Google+

Tufan Ulcay; Özkan Görgülü; Burcu Kamasak; Muhammet Alparslan; Ahmet Uzun; Kenan Aycan; Sait Bilgiç & Mehtap Nisari


The foramen magnum (FM) is a transition zone between the spine and skull. There is a study in the literature showing the golden ratio (4.62) and harmony between both FM and the anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the skull. The aim of this study is to examine the existence of this ratio on CT images and to investigate whether this ratio changes according to the FM shape types. In this study, 402 adult CT images belonging to the Turkish population were examined. Maximum cranial length (MCL), maximum cranial width (MCW) and the FM length (FML) and FM width (FMW) were measured. The different shapes of the FM were macroscopically classified. The number and incidence of each type in the studied skull was registered. In the 402 CT images used in the study, 12 FM shapes were detected. Three of the shape types observed in our study have not been reported in the literature until now, and were found in our study for the first time. In addition, our data supported that by using the ratio of 4.62, there was a great harmony between the skull and FM. The results obtained from the research show that there is a ratio of 4.62 between the basic cranial measurements and FM dimensions in all shapes except triangular shape. It is thought that repeating the calculated coefficients over more different FM shapes will contribute to the effectiveness of the proposed golden ratio.

KEY WORDS: Computed tomography; Craniometry; Foramen magnum; Golden ratio; Radiological anatomy.

How to cite this article

ULCAY, T.; GÖRGÜLÜ, Ö.; KAMASAK, B.; ALPARSLAN, M.; UZUN, A.; AYCAN, K.; BILGIÇ, S. & NISARI, M. Golden ratio for the foramen magnum on CT images: A morphological and morphometrical study. Int. J. Morphol., 40(1):174-180, 2022.