Diana Pillay & Robert Ndou
Gestational alcohol exposure inhibits neurological as well as bone growth and development both in fetal and postnatal life. Stunted stature, osteoporosis and fractures in adult life are some of the adverse effects. While the impact of intrauterine alcohol on the brain has been extensively investigated, studies on the effects on bone are relatively few. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on bone microarchitecture in 3-week-old rats using Micro-focus X-Ray Computed Tomography (Micro CT). Time mated pregnant Sprague Dawley dams (13) were randomly placed into 3 groups: ethanol (n=5), saline control (n=5) and untreated control (n=3). The former 2 groups received treatment with 0.015ml/g of 25.2 % ethanol and 0.9 % saline, respectively, for the first 19 days of gestation. The untreated group received no treatment. The pups remained with their dams until termination at 21 days of age. From each dam, 2 pups were collected resulting in: ethanol (n=10), saline controls (n= 10) and untreated controls (n = 6). The humeri of the pups were dissected and scanned using a 3D-μCT scanner (Nikon XTH 225L) at 15μm resolution. Trabecular and cortical parameters were analysed using Volume Graphics Studio® software following reconstruction. Results showed a decrease in trabecular size, spaces, thickness, and volume. There was a decrease in cortical bone area in the ethanol group compared to the controls. These findings may suggest that osteoporosis and fractures seen as gestational alcohol effects may be due to compromised trabecular structure.
KEY WORDS: Microarchitecture; Trabeculae; Humerus; Osteoporosis; Prenatal alcohol.
PILLAY, D. & NDOU, R. Intrauterine alcohol exposure disturbs trabecular morphology in the Sprague Dawley rat humerus epiphysis up to 3-weeks postnatally. Int. J. Morphol., 39(5):1436-1442, 2021.