Cellular microstructural changes due to ultrasound exposure are critical to understand and characterize in order to further the establishment of ultrasonics in cell and tissue engineering and medicine. In this study, neurite length, nuclear morphology, and cellular toxicity are assessed at varying intensities of 92 kHz ultrasound provided by a piezoceramic disk element and incident upon SH- SY5Y neurons in vitro. Findings suggest that stimulation increases neurite length up to 2.73 fold tested at α = 0.05 in an intensity dependent manner. Additionally, stimulation causes a statistically significant (α = 0.05) decrease in nuclear area and less elongated nuclei, by 1.78 fold and 1.38 fold respectively, also in an intensity dependent manner. For maximum transducer surface intensities ranging from 0 to 39.11 W/cm2, the toxicity of 92 kHz ultrasound is assessed and a nontoxic range is determined using Caspase-3 and Annexin V staining, in addition to Calcium imaging via Calcein-AM staining. Intensities of up to 1.6 W/cm2 are found to be nontoxic for the cells under the parameters used in this study.
KEY WORDS: Ultrasound; Cell Biology; in vitro; Neural Stimulation; Neural Differentiation; Ultrasound Transducers.
BALASUBRAMANIAN, P. S. Characterization of SH-SY5Y neurons subject to 92khz ultrasound stimulation. Int. J. Morphol., 39(4):1109-1115, 2021.