The present study seeks to provide knowledge and important aspects of the anatomical structures associated with the buccal fat pad (BFP), as consequence of the report of a case of complication after bichectomy. Knowing the anatomical elements and their relationships with BFP is of vital importance, because nowadays there are too many BFP removal courses and internships, for general dentists and specialists, due to the increasing aesthetic demands of individuals seeking a finer and more stylized profile. The case presented is a female patient who consults the emergency department for an increase in facial volume after BFP extraction, which was diagnosed as sialocele, following damage to the parotid duct. When reviewing the literature and observing our anatomical preparations, the proximity of important elements is appreciated, such as the parotid duct, the zygomatic and buccal branches of the facial nerve, facial vessels such as the facial artery, facial vein and facial transverse artery. It is essential to know in detail the area in order to intervene and consider the possible anatomical variations of these elements to avoid injury during the procedure. The aimed objective of this study, is to provide accurate and concise anatomical information of important elements near or immersed in BFP, to prevent iatrogenesis.
KEY WORDS: Anatomy; Adipose Tissue; Surgery; Cheek; Surgery; Esthetics.