The Pterygospinous Foramen (Civinini) and the Pterygoalar (Crotaphitico-Buccinatorius). Laboratory Findings

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Kennedy Martinez de Oliveira; Valério Landim de Almeida; Carlos Alberto Carranza López; Guilherme Tatagiba Brandão; Marcos Guilherme Bedim Trancoso; Maísa de Fátima Satiro Oliveira4; Isabela Coimbra Ladeira Morais; Daniele Cristina Barbosa Soares & Luana Carolina Maletta Costa


The Pterygospinous foramen and pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico-buccinatorius) are variant and atavic formations of the skull base and arise respectively from complete or incomplete idiopathic ossifications of the pterygospinous and pterygoalar ligaments. By proximity with areas of relevance for diagnosis and surgery, such as access pathways to the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces, it is necessary to be aware of these conditions due to the difficulties generated in surgical maneuvers and the promotion of compressive syndromes of mandibular nerve branches. This study was conducted on 45 samples of dry skulls and disarticulated sphenoid bones belonging to the collection of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares campus, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Our results indicated a total incidence of complete and incomplete pterygospinous and pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico- buccinatorius) in 15, 5 % (7 skulls), with a higher incidence for the incomplete form of pterygospinous foramen (Civinini foramen) in 4 skulls (8.8 %), with 3 presenting unilaterally and 3 presenting bilaterally. The pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico-buccinatorius or Hyrtl) was noted bilaterally in 1 of the skulls (2.2 %). The pterygospinous foramen and pterygoalar foramen are important findings, sometimes incidental, of an area of great anatomical expressiveness and pathological occurrences, besides the indispensable and unclear studies of phylogenetic order.

KEY WORDS: Pterygospinous ligament; Pterygoalar ligament; Oval foramen and Pore crotaphitico-buccinatorius.

How to cite this article

OLIVEIRA, K. M.; DE ALMEIDA, V. L.; LÓPEZ, C. A. C.; BRANDÃO, G. T.; TRANCOSO, M. G. B., OLIVEIRA, M. F. S.; MORAIS, I. C. L., SOARES, D. C. B. & COSTA, L. C. M. The pterygospinous foramen (civinini) and the pterygoalar (Crotaphitico- buccinatorius) Laboratory findings. Int. J. Morphol., 39(1):198-204, 2021.