Geometric Morphometric and its New Applications in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Part 2

Tweet about this on TwitterShare on FacebookEmail this to someoneShare on Google+

Amado Villalobos-Leiva & Hugo A. Benítez


This study provides an updated vision of the study of Geometric Morphometrics and its most recent application in ecology and evolutionary biology, covering a wide variation in methodology occurring in the last 5 years since the first version published in the International Journal of Morphology. Geometric Morphometrics is a tool that allows evaluating morphological variations with underlying factors, with a higher sensitivity than traditional morphology, so that minimum changes of morphological variation can be detected. Therefore, it has turned into an outstanding tool to answer questions of comparative biology focused on anatomic characters. At the beginning, it was a tool mainly used to answer taxonomic questions and for differentiation at individual, population or species level. However, in the last years, the number of questions and problematic on which it is applied, has diversified considerably, turning it into a very accurate tool to answer questions of morphological variation in ecologic and evolutionary contexts. Almost half a decade has elapsed since the last revision of the method, so this work is intended to analyze the methodological changes and the new approaches used in Geometric Morphometrics, including a brief introductory guideline to these new methods, their uses and applications.

KEY WORDS: Geometric morphometrics; Integration; Modularity; Fluctuating asymmetry; Shape covariation; 3D Geometric morphometrics.

How to cite this article

VILLALOBOS-LEIVA, A. & BENÍTEZ, H. A. Geometric morphometric and its new applications in ecology and evolutionary biology. Part 2. Int. J. Morphol., 38(6):1818-1836, 2020.