A Double Fluorescence Chimeric Limb Regeneration Model Reveals Muscle Fiber Reconnection During Axolotl Limb Regeneration

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Mu-Hui Wang; Ting-Yu Huang; Cheng-Han Wu; Ling-Ling Chiou & Hsuan-Shu Lee


Axolotl limb regeneration is a fascinating characteristic that has attracted attention for several decades. Our previous studies on axolotl limb regeneration indicated that the satellite cells in the remnant muscles move distally into the blastema to regenerate new muscles that are separated by a gap from remnant muscles. Thereafter, the regenerative muscle fibers start to reconnect with remnant ones. In this study, the reconnection at the individual muscle fiber level was elucidated to test the hypothesis that this reconnection happens synchronously among involved muscles. Three pairs of EGFP+ mid-bud stage blastemas were transplanted onto freshly amputated stumps of RFP+ axolotls at the same thigh position to generate double fluorescence chimeric regenerative hindlimbs. These regenerative limbs were harvested very late far beyond they had reached the late differentiation stage. Fluorescence imaging of these limbs in cross sections revealed that in the proximal remnant part of the muscle fiber, reconnection occurred at a different pace among the muscles. In the major thigh muscle gracilis, the reconnection started from the periphery before it was completed. Furthermore, RFP+ muscle fibers contributed to muscle regeneration in the distal regenerative parts. Intriguingly, this red cell contribution was limited to ventral superfi- cial muscles of the calf. This kind of double fluorescence chimeric limb regeneration model may help increase the understanding of the patterning of axolotl limb regeneration in late stages.

KEY WORDS: Transgenic; EGFP; RFP; Blastema transplantation; Muscle fusion.

How to cite this article

WANG, M. H.; HUANG, T. Y.; WU, C. H.; CHIOU, L. L. & LEE, H. S. Double fluorescence chimeric limb regeneration model reveals muscle fiber reconnection during axolotl limb regeneration. Int. J. Morphol., 38(5):1485-1495, 2020.