Lymphangiomatosis is a benign pathology, of unknown etiology. Affects especially to pediatric population and is characterized by development of subcutaneous masses that involve one or more organs. When it presents with coagulopathy and chylous effusions, it is called kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KL). The available evidence of KL is scarce. The objective of this manuscript was to report a case of pediatric KL treated at SOLCA Cancer Institute, Cuenca, Ecuador. Female patient of 1 year and 7 months age. She had a bilateral inguinal hernia and altered coagulation times. Imaging studies revealed a mediastinal mass associated with fluid in the pleural space and in the abdominal- pelvic cavity. Furthermore, the existence of multiple hypogenic images in the spleen was evidenced. Minimal thymectomy, biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed to establish the diag- nosis, and a drain was installed in the chest to treat the aforementioned pleural effusion. Other pathologies like lymphomas, lupus, etc. were ruled out. Given the continuous respiratory deterioration, coagulopathy, splenic hypogenic lesions and abundant drainage of the chylothorax through the chest tube, the diagnosis of KL was raised. Parenteral nutrition (lipid-free) was started; Vincristine was indicated, and a pleurodesis with bleomycin was performed without a good response. The patient died 16 days after her admission. It is a case of very bad prognosis, with a rapidly progressive evolution towards a fatal outcome.
KEY WORDS: Lymphangiomatosis; Coagulopathy; Pleural effusion; Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis.