One of the key functions of the hepatobiliary system is bile formation. Aquaporins (AQPs) are likely to play a role in water transport that is essential for appropriate hepatobiliary tract function. The increasing prevalence of fatty liver parallels the rise of obesity and its complications over the past several decades. In this paper, general morphology observation, histopathology and AQP1 immunohistochemical expression were observed in livers of the high-fat diet (HFD) rats. For the liver of HFD rats, immunolight microscopy revealed weak labeling of AQP1 on the surface of central veins and liver sinusoid compared with the normal diet (ND) rats. It was suggested that bile secreted by the liver of HFD rats was maybe abnormal, thereby causing abnormalities in the composition and secretion of bile. However, the deeper understanding of mechanisms involved to the fatty liver is still unclear, in particular AQPs in the liver of obesity, additional studies would be required to study the signalling cascades involved in these processes.