The study of the teaching of medicine, from a historical perspective, is important to explain the development of this profession. Considering the value of books in the university curriculum, its study allows us to understand the socio-political influence of the historical moment. The objective of this work was to determine and analyze the first bibliography used in the training of doctors in Chile between 1758 and 1840 (from the foundation of the University of San Felipe to the death of Dr. Pedro Morán).Through a historical investigation it was possible to find the eight textbooks used during this period. Of these, a descriptive analysis was carried out that included the identification of the author, the title of the work, the year, language and place of publication. In addition, they were classified according to extension and focus. A quantitative analysis was also carried out to determine the amount of information presented in these books compared to modern literature. The results were arranged in tables and graphs for later analysis. The texts found were mainly published in Spain and in Spanish (62.5 %), although an important part was published in France and in French (37.5 %). The bibliography of French authors was used mainly (50 %), although books by Spanish authors (37.5 %) and Germans (12.5 %) were also included. With respect to the extension of the texts, both the medium and large extension books were represented in the same way (37.5 %) and the compendiums represented a smaller percentage (12.5 %). This work is a contribution to the understanding of the origin of the training of doctors in Chile and helps to understand the birth of professional identity, which has been of great influence in the political - social history of Chile, describing the bibliography that marked the birth of the History of Anatomy in our country.
KEY WORDS: History of anatomy; History of medicine; History of Chile; Anatomical literature; University of San Felipe; National Institute.