The gross morphometric features of mammalian olfactory system components show variations that may be attributed to dietary and ecological factors. We analyzed volumes and linear dimensions of olfactory brain components (OBC) namely, olfactory bulb (OB), olfactory tract (OT) and olfactory stria (OS) in an Afrotherian insectivore, the rufous sengi. These findings were then compared with those obtained previously in dogs (carnivore), goats (herbivore) and humans (omnivore). Volumes, lengths and breadths of the OBC were compared with those of the cerebral hemisphere (CH) and the whole brain (WB) by working out their ratios (%). In the sengi, the volume of OBC: WB was 1.03 %, length of OBC: CH = 58.08 % and breadth of OB: CH = 28.97 %. In an earlier report by Kavoi & Jameela respective values for the above parameters were 0.03 %, 21.47 % & 8.94 % in humans, 0.77 %, 51.87 % & 29.73 % in goats and 1.95 %, 72.30 % & 42.91 % in dogs. These observations suggest that the anatomical design of OBC happens in a manner that mimics an animal’s level of reliance on the sense of smell vis-à-vis feeding lifestyles, habitat and dynamics of evolution.
KEY WORDS: Macroscopic; Morphometry; Olfactory brain; Sengi.