True-Color Face Peeled Images with Botulinum Toxin Injection Sites and Anatomic Landmarks

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Jin Seo Park; Hea Kyeong Shin; Byeong-Seok Shin & Koojoo Kwon


To allow students and surgeons to learn the sites for botulinum toxin injection, new types of educational images are needed because MRI, CT, and sectioned images are inadequate. This article describes browsing software that displays face peeled images that allow layers along the curved surface of the face to be peeled gradually in even depths across the surface. Two volume models of the head were reconstructed from sectioned images and segmented images of Visible Korean, respectively. These volume models were peeled serially at a thickness of 0.2 mm along the curved surface of the facial skin to construct the peeled images and peeled segmented images. All of the peeled images were marked with botulinum toxin injection sites, facial creases and wrinkles, and fat compartments. All peeled images and the text information were entered into browsing software. The browsing software shows 12 botulinum toxin injection sites on all peeled images of the anterior and lateral views. Further, the software shows 23 anatomic landmarks, 13 facial creases and wrinkles, and 7 face fat compartments. When a user points at any structure on the peeled images, the name of the structure appears. Our software featuring the peeled images will be particularly effective for helping medical students to quickly and easily learn the accurate facial anatomy for botulinum toxin injection sites. It will also be useful for explaining plastic surgery procedures to patients and studying the anatomic structure of the human face.

KEY WORDS: Face; Anatomy; Plastic surgery; Botulinum toxins; Visible Human Project.

How to cite this article

PARK, J. S.; SHIN, H. K.; SHIN, B. S. & KWON, K. True-color face peeled images with botulinum toxin injection sites and anatomic landmarks. Int. J. Morphol., 37(3):1016-1022, 2019.