The aim of this study was to evaluate histologically the effect of two biomaterials, a biomaterial derived from porcine Urinary submucosa Bladder Matrix (UBM) and beta-TriCalcium Phosphate (β-TCP), on bone defects. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were used; the models were divided in two groups: the UBM group; the β-TCP group, and a Negative Control (NC) group. Five- mm defects were created in the femur of each model and then the different biomaterials were set in place depending on each group. At 4 and 8 weeks, the animals in the models were sacrificed and samples of the defect site were collected to perform a Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E). Histologically, β-TCP group at 4 and 8 weeks presented neoformation of bone-like and cartilage-like tissue, with the presence of inflammatory infiltrate; at 4 and 8 weeks, the UBM group presented neoformation of bone-like and cartilage-like tissue with a low presence of inflammatory infiltrate, and the NC group presented the formation of connective tissue and, in a low proportion, neoformation of bone tissue and cartilage. Both biomaterials, UBM and β-TCP, exhibited the capacity to promote bone neoformation; however, the UBM-based biomaterial produced a better-organized tissue with a lower inflammatory response compared with the β-TCP group.
KEY WORDS: Urinary bladder matrix; Bone regeneration; Biomaterial; β-tricalcium phosphate.