The lateral plantar nerve is a terminal branch of the tibial nerve, which innervates most of the foot's musculature, and also provides sensory innervation to the sole of the foot. In this present review we address various aspects of the lateral plantar nerve from its origin to its division, emphasizing those branches that, as a result of their anatomical disposition have been identified as causing compression syndrome. Furthermore, thorough knowledge and experience of anatomical variations are essential in procedures of the plantar region. Numerous studies have been carried out to accurately describe the path and relationship of the first branches of the lateral plantar nerve. Branches originating directly from the lateral plantar nerve are for the abductor digiti minimi and quadratus plantae muscles, in addition to a lateral cutaneous branch. Among these anatomical variations it is possible to find medial calcaneal branches, common trunk for medial calcaneal branches and abductor digiti minimi muscle, vascular branches for the plantar vessels, 2 or 3 branches for the quadrate plantae muscle, common trunk for the abductor digiti minimi muscle an quadratus plantae muscle, branch for the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle, "anastomotic" branch for the medial plantar nerve and branch for long plantar ligament. Updated and absolute knowledge of the anatomy of the foot are necessary, particularly during those surgical procedures that require precision, with fewer invasive approaches and positive results.
KEY WORDS: Lateral plantar nerve; Anatomy; Compression syndrome.