Splenectomy indications are hematologic disease, traumatic damage and iatrogenic injury. The aim of this study was to present an evidence-based overview of some clinical aspects of interest related with iatrogenic splenic injury and subsequent splenectomy. An overview of the available evidence was conducted. Articles that evaluated clinical aspects of interest related with iatrogenic splenic injury and subsequent splenectomy, without language limits, publication date and designs. BVS, PubMed, SciELO and TRIP databases were reviewed. Evaluated variables were: Frequency and etiology of surgical spleen injuries, treatment options, frequency of splenectomy, associated postoperative morbidity (POM) and mortality, recommendation for splenectomy. Classification of the available evidence was made using the classification proposed by Oxford Centre of Evidence-based Medicine. 1144 records were obtained. 1109 were discarded for not meeting eligibility criteria, or were not relevant for the purpose of this research. Finally, the study consisted of 35 articles, 3 of evidence level type 3a, 31 of evidence level type 4 and 1 of evidence level type 5. Splenectomy is a complication of common abdominal procedures, prevalence and incidence of iatrogenic splenic injury is underestimated because of lack of information, there is evidence of risk factors of surgical spleen injuries, the etiology of surgical spleen injuries are bariatric, esophagogastric, antireflux, colorectal, abdominal vascular and urological procedures. POM in patients undergoing splenectomy is more frequent in emergency splenectomy secondary to trauma. There was no significant risk reduction of infectious complications after implementation of routine vaccination. Available evidence is based on few and heterogeneous articles, which make a meaningful conclusions difficult. Studies with better evidence levels, methodological quality and population size are needed for conclusions and recommendations.
KEY WORDS: "Splenectomy"[Mesh]; "Digestive System Surgical Procedures"[Mesh]; Gastrointestinal Surgical Procedures; antireflux surgery; postoperative morbidity.