Portable Document Format File Containing the Surface Models to Learn the Stereoscopic Shape of Foot Muscles

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Hae Gwon Jang; Min Suk Chung & Dong Sun Shin


We intended to present a portable document format (PDF) file containing stereoscopic surface models of the foot. While other surface models are subjectively drawn based on anatomical knowledge, our models are reconstructed from high quality sectioned images. Unlike other models, ours in the complimentary PDF file can also be saved on individual user computers to be manipulated off-line. The skin, 27 bones, 24 muscles, and 19 ligaments in the foot were delineated on a male cadaver's sectioned images from the Visible Korean project. After stacking the outlines of the structures, other than those of the ligaments, surface reconstruction was performed. The resultant surface models were placed in a PDF file, in which the models could be superimposed on either the corresponding sectioned images or the color-filled outline images. PDF bookmarks were established to exhibit the groups of foot muscles conveniently. The PDF file prepared in this research is likely to be very useful for comprehension of the topographic anatomy of the foot muscles. The models it contains can be extracted by other researchers for their own virtual dissection or surgery visualization of foot as desired.

KEY WORDS: Visible Human Projects; Foot; Muscles; Three-dimensional imaging; Computer-assisted image processing; User-computer interface.

How to cite this article

JANG, H. G.; CHUNG, M. S. & SHIN, D. S. Portable document format file containing the surface models to learn the stereoscopic shape of foot muscles. Int. J. Morphol., 33(4):1287-1292, 2015.