Mohammad Shayyab; Firas Alsoleihat; Sukaina Ryalat & Ameen Khraisat
The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999) and (2000-2007). A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injuries published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%). In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3%) than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0) than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0) in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%). It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.