Rubén D. Valbuena-Villarreal; Beatriz E. Zapata-Berruecos; Carlos David-Ruales & Pablo E. Cruz-Casallas
The knowledge of embryonic development in fish is important in native species with potential for fish farming, by virtue of which it makes possible to identify morphological and chronological events to establish management practices during incubation periods and larviculture. The capaz (Pimelodus grosskopfii) is a species with potential for commercial crop, due to their omnivorous eating habits and acceptance of its meat in the market. To study the embryonic development of the species, sexually mature adult specimens were induced to reproduce with carp pituitary extract (5.75 and 4.0 mgKg-1, females and males, respectively). The inseminated oocytes were incubated in an upward flow system 30 a 27 ± 1 ° C. The samples (n = 30) were collected at the same time of the extrusion, during fertilization, and every 15 minutes starting from 0 to 2 hours post fertilization (HPF) and every 30 minutes from 0 to 2 HPF, and every 30 minutes from 2 to 5 HPF; finally, between 5 HPF and hatching every 60 minutes. The fertilized oocytes had a spherical shape without adhesions and large perivitelline space. Embryonic development took 12 HPF. The differentiation in animal and vegetal pole occurred at 0.2 HPF, the first cleavage at 0.3 HPF, stratified and high blastodisc at 1.8 HPF, flattened blastodisc at 3.3 HPF, the epiboly <50% was observed at 4 HPF, the closure of the blastopore at 5.7 HPF, cranial-caudal differentiation and starting the neurolation at 7 HPF, the differentiation of the optic vesicles, otic and Kupffer's vesicle at 8.5 HPF, tail of the vitelum was released at 10 HPF, first movements were observed at 10.5 and finally hatching occurred at 12 HPF. When the larvae hatched, they showed a total length of 2987±67 µm, without depigmentation, rudimentary digestive system without oral and anal opening and the presence of chromatophores on the yolk sac.