Craniofacial Forms among Three Dominant Ethnic Groups of Gombe State, Nigeria

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M. B. Maina; O. Mahdi & G. G. Kalayi


Anthropometric measurements such as cranial and facial forms provide essential information that can be used added provide in orofacial surgery and in diagnostic comprehension between patient and normal populations. There is no published literature about the types of head and face shapes in Fulani, Tangale and Tera ethnic groups of Nigeria. Hence, this study was undertaken to document the various cranial and facial forms of these ethnic groups residing in Gombe region of North-Eastern Nigeria. Head length, head width, head circumference, face length and face width were measured and the cephalic and prosopic indices calculated in a total of 300 subjects (150 males and 150 females). Results analyzed placed all males of the three ethnic groups in dolicocephalic head group with mean cephalic indices lower than 74.9, while all females to mesocephalic head group with mean cephalic indices between the range of 75-79.9. On the basis of face shapes, The Fulani and Tera males were found to belong to hyperleptoprosopic group, while the Tangale and Tera females to leptoprosopic group with prosopic indices over 95 and between the ranges of 90-94.9, respectively. Therefore, the findings revealed that all males and females of the three ethnic groups share close similarities in head types and some variations in face types. Furthermore, variation of head and face shapes from this study exists with those of other studies within and outside Nigeria.

KEY WORDS: Cephalic index; Prosopic index; Head types; Face types

How to cite this article

MAINA, M. B.; MAHDI, G. G. & KALAYI, G. G. Craniofacial forms among three dominant ethnic groups of Gombe state, Nigeria. Int. J. Morphol., 30(1):211-216, 2012.