A segmental hypoplastic anterior tibial artery coexisting with an hypertrophied perforating fibular artery a case report and clinical implications.

DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022015000100002
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Olutayo Ariyo

Summary

Vascular injuries of the lower limb, especially from penetrating gunshot wounds, and peripheral arterial diseases are on the increase and management of these and many other lower limb injuries involve increasing usage of vascular interventions like by-pass surgery, per-cutaneous transluminal angioplasty, arterial cannulation, arterial bypass graft or minimally invasive measures like percutaneous trans-arterial catheterization, among others. A thorough knowledge of infrapopliteal branching most especially their pathways and luminal diameters are important to surgeons in selecting appropriate surgical interventions or procedures. We report the case in which one of the 3 terminal branches of the popliteal artery (PPA), the anterior tibial artery (ATA) of good caliber size at origin became hypoplastic in the anterior leg region after giving off numerous muscular branches. Continuing as an almost attenuated dorsalis pedis artery (aDPA) in the dorsum of the foot, the latter was reinforced by an enlarged hypertrophied fibular artery. This case illustrates yet the importance of the fibular artery as the dominant of the 3 infrapopliteal branching arteries, reinforcing or replacing the posterior tibial artery (PTA) when it is weak or absent by a strong communicating branch or, reinforcing a weak ATA and dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) by a strong perforating fibular artery as being reported. The PTA however travelled a normal course yielding the medial and lateral plantar arteries posterior to the abductor hallucis muscle. This case demonstrates the importance of collateral communications and reinforcements from other infrapopliteal arteries, whenever one of its members or subsequent branches are absent or hypoplastic. A very sound knowledge of the various branching patterns of the PPA can be gained via pre-operatively vascular angiography, designed to guide the surgeon in the selection of appropriate surgical interventions, adding value to patients care in helping to reduce iatrogenic surgical vascular complications and reduction in total number of limb loss.

KEY WORDS: Segmental hypoplastic anterior tibial artery; Attenuated dorsalis pedis artery; Hypertrophied fibular artery; Infrapopliteal branching.

How to cite this article

ARIYO, O. A segmental hypoplastic anterior tibial artery coexisting with an hypertrophied perforating fibular artery a case report and clinical implications. Int. J. Morphol., 33(1):19-23, 2015.