Between the syndromes of nerve compression in the forearm, due to the presence of the tendinous arches related to the nerves that pass between its muscle layers, is the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). The presence of muscular variations can generate arches that cause nerve compression. The aim of our study was to establish the incidence and morphology of the accessory head of flexor pollicis longus muscle (AFPLm) and its relationship with AIN or its branches. Thirty forearms of formalized corpses of adult Brazilians were used. The selected landmark for measurements was the medial epicondyle of the humerus (MEH). It was noted that three upper limbs presented the AFPLm (10%), originated from the MEH to end inserted into the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus muscle. The AFPLm showed fusiform appearance, which had a tendon that formed an arch with the flexor pollicis longus muscle. In one case, this arch was associated with the passage of AIN. In the other two, this arch was related to motor branches originating from the AIN. The diagnosis of nerve compression syndromes should consider the presence of AFLPm, which potentially can be related to the course of the AIN or its branches.
KEY WORDS: Anatomy; Muscle variations; Head accessory flexor pollicis longus muscle; Anterior interosseous nerve; Compression syndrome.