Emerging Role of Mast Cells as Biological Markers in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases and their Projection in Health Emergencies

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Héctor Rodríguez Bustos; Omar Espinoza-Navarro; Camilo Arriaza & Laura Aravena Traipi


Mast cells (MC) are cells of the immune system that regulate cell and tissue homeostasis, are found in low numbers, have an intact plasma membrane, and a cytoplasm with a wide variety of inflammatory chemical mediators. The activation or degranulation of mast cells implies the release of these chemical mediators (interleukins, cytokines, and more), causing tissue actions ranging from the activation of metalloproteinases to the development of anaphylactic hypersensitivity of different degrees, alterations in vascular permeability, and loss of cell homeostasis. This behavior would allow them to act as sentinels responding to pathophysiological processes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, in positive human patients, the available literature reports the presence and degranulation of mast cells in a generalized manner, especially in the respiratory tract. This study aimed to analyze the emerging role of MCs in the pathogenesis of diseases and their projection as biological markers in the treatment of diseases or pandemics. The analysis of human biopsies showed that MCs are observed as cells with diameters between 8 to 20 μm, and in inflamed tissues, degranulation of MCs is observed. The action of MCs degranulation was related to different inflammatory processes of autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that the potential of MC as therapeutic targets and biomarkers could raise new pharmacological targets, as supportive therapy, and possibly of great help in the treatment of future emerging pandemics such as the current monkeypox.

KEY WORDS: Mast cells; COVID-19; Histology; Health Emergency; Therapy.

How to cite this article

RODRÍGUEZ BUSTOS, H.; ESPINOZA-NAVARRO, O.; ARRIAZA, C. & ARAVENA TRAIPI, L. Emerging role of mast cells as biological markers in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and their projection in health emergencies. Int. J. Morphol., 42(2):424-428, 2024.