Mandibular Incisive Canal Morphometry: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study in Jordan

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Jihad A.M Alzyoud; Eman Rababeh & Aiman Al-Qtaitat


Mandibular incisive canal (MIC) and related mental foramen (MF) and anterior loop (AL) morphometrics are important landmarks in medical and dental clinical applications. The main aim of this retrospective study to determine the morphometry of the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) in a Jordanian population and to propose a new shape-pattern classification of the MIC. In addition, MF and AL morphometrics were determined. Carestream 3D imaging software was used on 100 Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) of a Jordanian population to determine the MF, AL and MIC morphometrics. The detection prevalence of the MIC was 96 %. The right and left MIC showed four distinct line patterns, proposed for the first time in this paper. The line-patterns were angular (L-line), straight (I-line), curved (V-line) and wavy (W-line), with a prevalence of 41 %, 19 %, 25.5 %, and 10.5 %, respectively. MF was detected in all mandibles with a round shape in 58 % of the images. The most common horizontal and vertical positions of the MF were H4 and H3 (73.5 %) and V3 and V2 (95 %), respectively. An accessory MF was detected in 14.5 % of the samples and was more prevalent in males and on the right side. AL was detected in 92.5 % of the samples and exhibited a pattern prevalence of 25.5 %, 40 % and 27 % for types I, II and III, respectively. Results revealed that asymmetry and gender differences between right and left MIC, MF, AL and AMF was seen in patient's mandibles. In conclusion, this is the first study to propose and show that Mandibular incisive canal exhibits four potential line patterns (L, I, V and W lines patterns). Gender and ethnic variations of the mandibular canal landmarks morphometrics of both right and left hemi-mandible are important to be acknowledged in learning anatomy and when planning or performing dental and medical procedures.

KEY WORDS: Mandibular Canal; Mandibular Incisive Canal; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Mental Foramen; Mandible.

How to cite this article

ALZYOUD, J. A. M; RABABEH, E. & AL-QTAITAT, A. Mandibular Incisive canal morphometry: A cone-beam computed tomography study in Jordan. Int. J. Morphol., 42(2):317-323, 2024.