The aim of the present work was to study the closer effect of clomiphene citrate on the ultrastructure of the testis of adult albino rats to provide a basis for optimizing this drug in the treatment of male infertility. The testes were removed from both groups under anesthesia and then prepared for examination by light using hematoxylin and eosin stains and a transmission electron microscope. Semithin sections were cut into 1 μm thick sections, stained with toluidine blue, and examined by light microscopy for a survey. The desired areas were placed in the center, and other areas were trimmed. Primary spermatocytes showed marked nuclear changes (pyknosis), and their nuclear membranes were ill-defined and disrupted. The cytoplasm showed widespread degeneration of mitochondria and lysosomes and focal degeneration of the rough endoplasmic reticulum compared with the control group. The spermatids were pale, and the two phases of spermatogenesis were distinctly identifiable in the control group but were confused in the treated group. Some spermatids had interrupted nuclear membranes, also containing degenerated mitochondria, focal fragmentation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes. Spermatozoa in the treated group appeared deformed compared to the control, where they had deformed head caps. Leydig cells of the treated group have an irregularly shaped nucleus, with focal chromatin aggregation and peripheral chromatin condensation on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. The observations of the present work indicate a possible causal relationship between testicular affection and ingestion of clomiphene citrate, which can be avoided by close medical observations using ultrasonography, semen analysis, or testicular biopsy to detect early malignant changes. Furthermore, the drug should not be used for more than three to six cycles and should be stopped for at least three cycles before reuse. When clomiphene citrate is ineffective in the treatment of male infertility, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) administration is typically selected. However, high-dose hMG therapy is associated with a variety of adverse effects. In this work, we report the success of a modified clomiphene citrate regimen in increasing sperm count without any hazards to the testicular tissue.KEY WORDS: Clomiphene citrate; Testis; Albino rats; Spermatogenesis; Electron microscope.
ELBANA, A. K. Effect of clomiphene citrate on the ultrastructure of testis in albino rats. Int. J. Morphol., 41(5):1492-1500, 2023.