Morphological Description of Extrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb in a Specimen of Pudu (Pudu puda)

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Pamela Morales Muñoz; Catalina Arriagada Valdés; Jorge Sánchez Oñate & Rodemil Medina Puentes


The pudu (Pudu puda) is classified as an artiodactyl of the Cervidae family. It is a native species found in Argen- tina and Chile. It is estimated that its population has been substantially reduced due to several causes, such as loss of forests, predation, hunting, and vehicle accident. Therefore, this species is protected due to its vulnerable conservation status. The extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb have great importance in the biomechanical functionality of the suspension of the limb, neck, and head, as well as participating in the movement of the thoracic wall and thoracic limb. The objective of the present study is to describe the extrinsic musculature of the thoracic limb of a specimen of pudu, comparing the results with those described for domestic ruminants in the classical anatomical bibliography. Basic procedures: All extrinsic muscles were analyzed, describing shape, distribution, origin, and insertion. The results indicate that the pudu specimen has anatomical characteristics similar to domestic ruminants; however, some differences should be considered. Main findings: The brachiocephalicus muscle has an evident clavicular intersection that separates it into cleidobrachialis, cervicalis, and mastoideus pars. The pectoralis superficialis muscle has two distinct and independent pars, and the pectoralis profundus muscle has a partial fusion with the latissimus dorsi and cutaneous trunci muscles. The subclavius muscle is small and has an elongated shape and goes deep into the cephalic vein, just at the point it is a tributary of the external jugular vein. The results of this study present specific anatomical features of Pudu puda providing novel reference information and expanding scientific knowledge of this scarcely studied wild species.

KEY WORDS: Description; Extrinsic Muscles; Thoracic Limb; Pudu.

How to cite this article

MORALES, M. P.; ARRIAGADA, V. C.; SÁNCHEZ, O. J. & MEDINA, P. R. Morphological description of extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb in a specimen of pudu (Pudu puda). Int. J. Morphol., 39(2):366-370, 2021.