Morphometry of Mental Foramina Applied to Local Anesthesia in Hoary Fox (Lycalopex vetulus Lund, 1842)

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Henrique Inhauser Riceti Magalhães; Ricardo Lucas Ferreira Júnior; Ygor Henrique de Paula; Mateus Santos Moreira; Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e Silva; Maria Angélica Miglino; Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros; Zenon Silva & Lucas de Assis Ribeiro


In order to perform local anaesthetic blockade of the mental nerves, it is fundamentally to determine anatomical references, including the precise identification of the mental foramina; however, the literature does not present specific data on such structures in the Hoary Fox. Therefore, the objective was describing the morphometry of the mental foramina of this specie, in order to correlate its topographies with the mandibular anatomical reference points, supporting the effective technique for mental desensitization. For this purpose, four mandibles of adult bodies of Lycalopex vetulus were used. Bilaterally, three mental foramina were observed located on the rostral third of the lateral margin of the mandibular body. One of them is more caudal, positioned ventrally to the lower third premolar tooth; a medium one, is located ventrally to the lower first premolar tooth; and a rostral one, placed ventrally to the lower intermediate incisor tooth. There were no statistically significant differences between the antimeres. Therefore, it is indicated that the local anaesthetic block of the mental nerves in this species should be performed by inserting the needle approximately 4.4 mm in a ventrodorsal direction. It is necessary positioning it perpendicularly to the ventral margin of the mandibular body and juxtaposed to its lateral face, using as anatomical reference the interalveolar space located between the first two lower premolar teeth. Thus, that the point established for anaesthetic injection (caudal limit of the ventral margin of the middle mental foramen), provides greater safety for its realization since, for small animals, the recommendation for blockade is represented by needle penetration on the direction of emergence of the mental nerve and artery from this foramen, which makes these structures more exposed to iatrogenic lesions resulting from the technique.

KEY WORDS: Area anaesthesia; Dentistry; Mandible; Morphology; Skull.

How to cite this article

MAGALHÃES, H. I. R.; FERREIRA JÚNIOR, R. L.; DE PAULA, Y. H.; MOREIRA, M. S.; CARNEIRO E SILVA, F. O.; MIGLINO, M. A.; CARVALHO-BARROS, R. A.; SILVA, Z. & RIBEIRO, L. A. Morphometry of mental foramina applied to local anesthesia in Hoary Fox (Lycalopex vetulus Lund, 1842). Int. J. Morphol., 37(4):1486-1492, 2019.