The asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by qualitative deterioration of reciprocal social interactions and communication methods, as well as by the restriction of the repertoire of interests and activities that are perceived as stereotyped and repetitive. Actually, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) decides to eliminate this subcategory and to incorporate it into a general category known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which has produced many debates and disagreements mainly to distinguish it or not with High Functioning Autism (HFA). One approach to address this question is the effort to understand the structural and functional neuroanatomy of ASD and AS in particu- lar; however, this approach has led to variable outcomes, often due to differences in age, gender, subcategories and IQ of study subjects, as well as by inclusion criteria and study methodology. Based on the above-mentioned, the aim of this review was to present the current knowledge of the neuroanatomical characteristics of AS considering for this the investigations of the ASD that individualize this disorder as a diagnostic entity and differentiate it from HFA.
KEY WORDS: Asperger syndrome; Neuroanatomical characteristics