Knowledge of variations in MF location, size and shape is important when anesthetizing nerves of the mandibular region in dental procedures. The location, shape and position of the MF were determined in 119 human mandibles of unknown age and sex from different KP medical institutions. Parameters determined were: MF length and width; accessory mental foramen (AMF) width; MF and AMF to midline (MF-ML) (AMF-ML), upper (MF-UM) (AMF-UM) and lower mandibular margins (MF-LM) (AMF-LM) and posterior border of the mandibular ramus (MF-PRM) (AMF-PRM). AMF position in relation to the MF was also noted. MF were mainly oval and situated below the second premolar. MF mean length and width were: 2.4 ± 0.89 (right) and 2.4 ± 0.727 mm (left), and 3.0 ± 0.80 (right) and 2.9 ± 0.94 mm (left) respectively. MF-ML, MF-UM, MF-LM and MF-PRM distances on the right and left sides were: 29.1 ± 2.19 mm and 28.1 ± 2.12 mm; 11.0 ± 3.99 mm and 11.2 ± 3.98 mm; 13.1 ± 1.83 mm and 12.8 ± 1.74 mm; and 69.3 ± 5.52 mm and 68.7 ± 5.02 mm, respectively. Double mental foramen (DMF) were observed on both sides (10.9 % right, 12.6 % left) with length and width 0.7 ± 0.42 mm and 0.9 ± 0.34 mm (right) and 0.8 ± 0.32 mm and 1.0 ± 0.47 mm (left): they were mainly oval (5.8 % right, 7.56 % left). DMF-MF distance was 8.9 ± 4.58 mm on the right and 6.6 ± 4.11 mm on the left. An oval accessory mental foramen was observed in one mandible. There was no difference between right and left MF; however differences in the parameters measured were observed in relation to other populations indicating the need to be aware of such differences when undertaking surgical procedures around the MF.
KEY WORDS: Mental Foramen; Accessory Mental Foramen; Double Mental Foramen; Mandible; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.