True Retaining Ligaments of Face as Surgical Landmarks
Ertugrul Tatlisumak & Levent Yoleri
The adherence of the overlying tissues to the underlying structures in the face is maintained by the retaining ligaments. True retaining ligaments named orbital, zygomatic and mandibular ligaments are a series of fibrous bands that run from periosteum to the dermis. The tethering effect of true retaining ligaments must be released for achieving a satisfactory movement of facial skin and Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System (SMAS) during facial rejuvenation procedures. The aim of this study was to define the location of the true retaining ligaments of the face and to discuss their usability as surgical landmarks. The study was made on ten hemi-faces of formaline-fixed cadavers. Dissections resembling face-lift procedures were applied and ligaments were determined. The distances of the ligaments to lateral canthus, tragus and commissure and to the lines from tragus to lateral canthus and commissure were measured. Correlations were investigated statistically. The distances of the zygomatic and mandibular ligaments from the tragus were 66.50±10.78 mm and 114.80±9.76 mm respectively. The distances of the zygomatic ligament from the commissure and the commissure tragus line were 56.30±8.94 mm and 28.40±5.19 mm respectively. The distances of zygomatic and mandibular ligaments from the tragus were strongly correlated with a ratio of 3/5 and there was a strong correlation between the distances of the zygomatic ligament from the commissure and commissure- tragus line with a ratio of 2. The results of this study elucidated the possibility of the use of the true retaining ligaments as surgical landmarks for facial surgery.