Macroanatomy of the Bones of Thoracic Limb of an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)
A. S. M. Lutful Ahasan; Md. Abul Quasem; Mohammad Lutfur Rahman; Rubyath Binte Hasan; A. S. M. Golam Kibria & Subrata Kumar Shil
Bones of forelimb were studied from a prepared skeleton of an adult female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Anatomy Museum of Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University to understand the morphological form and structure of Asian elephant forelimb. The angle was approximately 123o between caudal border of scapula and caudal border of humerus. The scapula, humerus and bones of the antebrachium (particularly the ulna) were massive bones. The bones of manus were the short and relatively small. The dorsal border of scapula extended from the level of proximal extremity of first rib to the middle of the 6th rib. Ventral angle of scapula articulated with humerus by elongated shaped glenoid cavity (cavitas glenoidalis) of scapula and head of humerus (caput humeri). The major tubercle (tuberculum majus) of humerus was situated laterally to the head, which had smaller cranial part with large caudal part and extended cranially to the head. The crest of minor tubercle (tuberculum minus) was present as the rough line on the mediocaudal surface of humerus that ends in a slight depressed or elevated area, known as teres major tuberosity (tuberositas teres major). The lateral supracondyler crest (crista supra condylaris lateralis) at the caudal surface of the shaft limit the musculo-spiral groove in body of humerus. The radius and ulna are twin bones of forearm and the attachment between ulna and radius occurs in such a way, the radius articulates craniomedially with the ulna in the proximal part. But the shaft spirals laterally over the cranial surface of the ulna to articulate distally with the medial aspect of the ulna.There were 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal bones and 5 digits. The comparative size of the proximal and distal raw of carpal bones were ulnar carpal > radial > intermediate > accessory carpal and IV > III > II > I respectively. The gradual lengths of the metacarpal bones were III > IV > II > V > I. Digits I and V were vertical and digit II, III and IV were horizontal.
AHASAN, A. M. S. L.; QUASEM, M. A.; RAHMAN, M. L.; HASAN, R. B.; KIBRIA, A. S. M. G. & SHIL, S. K. Macroanatomy of the bones of thoracic limb of an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). Int. J. Morphol., 34(3):909-917, 2016.