SUMMARY: This work aims to describe the morphology of dorsal and ventral cephalic musculature in five species of genus Urotrygon. Muscular differences were observed, mainly in the development level. Muscles showing certain degree of variation in the dorsal region were the cucullaris and the ethmoideo-parethmoidalis. In ventral view, higher variation was observed. Muscles showing differences were the depressor rostri, the depressor hyomandibularis, the preorbitalis medial, the coracohioideus, and the depressor mandibularis. Urotrygon aspidurus was the species with the largest differences, as it has no mandibular depressor, and the rostral depressor is quite developed. The shape and arrangement of cephalic musculature in Urotrygon is similar to that reported for genus Urolophus and Dasyatis, however, it is different from that of most specialized myliobatoids.
KEY WORDS: Elasmobranchii, Batoidei, Urotrygon, cephalic musculature.