Morphological Investigation of the Brain of the African Ostrich (Struthio camelus)

DOI : 10.4067/S0717-95022015000400046
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Ashraf A. Karkoura; Mohamed A. M. Alsafy; Samir A. A. Elgendy & Fatima A. Eldefrawy


The aim of the current study focused on the morphological features of the brain of the African ostrich. The brain was studied macroscopically, microscopically and the measurements of all brain parts were demonstrated. The brain of ostrich was rhombus in shape with large obtuse triangular cerebrum with sagittal dorsomedial wulst. The olfactory bulb was small with undeveloped olfactory lobe. The diencephalon gave rise to the pineal gland, which was inverted tubal structure with an obtuse triangle bottom. Large optic chiasm and optic tract demonstrated that continued to the optic lobes. The cerebellum was represented by central vermis that had numerous transverse fissures and two small lateral floccules on its lateral surface. The medulla oblongata with clear pontine flexure and no obvious pons or trapezoid body appeared. The histological results revealed that the cerebral cortex formed of several ill-defined layers of neurons. The most common appearance characterized by few small neurons supported by neuroglia. The cerebellar cortex consists of three layers namely molecular layer, Purkinje cells layer and internal granular layer, the layer of Purkinje cells characterized by a very large cell body. The medulla oblongata was covered by pia mater of loose connective tissue that covered with simple squamous epithelium and vascular supply extended beneath the pia mater. The cell nuclei of the medulla oblongata were formed from few multipolar neurons, supported by few neuroglia. The fourth ventricle was lined by pseudo stratified columnar ciliated ependymal cells.

KEY WORDS: Brain; Morphology; Ostrich.

How to cite this article

KARKOURA, A. A.; ALSAFY, M. A. M.; ELGENDY, S. A. A. & ELDEFRAWY, F. A. Morphological investigation of the brain of the African ostrich (Struthio camelus). Int. J. Morphol., 33(4):1468-1475, 2015.