Incidence of Retromolar Foramen in Human Mandibles: Ethnic and Clinical Aspects

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Ana Cláudia Rossi; Alexandre Rodrigues Freire; Guilherme Bevilacqua Prado; Felippe Bevilacqua Prado; Paulo Roberto Botacin & Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria


The retromolar foramen allows the passage of the neurovascular bundles that contribute to nutrition and innervation of the pulp and periodontium of the lower teeth. Knowledge of this anatomical variation may prevent complications in the anesthesia and surgical procedures in this area and serve as an anatomical landmark for ethnic identification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the retromolar foramen in human mandibles of adult Brazilians and discuss the clinical and ethnic related to the presence of this foramen. Were evaluated 222 human mandibles, dry, adults, Brazilians, independent of gender. The evaluation was performed by two examiners who standardized search from a previous anatomical study. The mandibles were analyzed: the presence of the retromolar foramen (bilateral or unilateral), the presence of the foramen on right and left sides, and the number of foramens present on each side. It was found that 59 had at least one mandible retromolar foramens resulting in an incidence of 26.58%. The retromolar foramen was present unilaterally in 41 mandibles and 18 bilaterally, with incidences of 18.47% and 12.16% respectively. On the right side, the retromolar foramen was present in incidences of 16.22% and 18.92% respectively. The analysis of the right side of the mandibles revealed that 47.46%, 21.21% and 3.03% had one, two and three foramens, respectively. The left side showed 55.93%, 16.22% and 8.11% of the 222 mandibles with one, two and three retromolar foramens, respectively. The incidence of retromolar foramen in the Brazilian population is significant and should be considered in the planning and execution of procedures in several areas of clinical practice dentistry in order to avoid complications. Moreover, it was found that the incidence of retromolar foramen contributes to differentiation of ethnic groups in the area of forensic anthropology.

KEY WORDS: Foramen; Retromolar; Anesthesia; Mandible.

How to cite this article

ROSSI, A. C.; FREIRE, A. R.; PRADO, B. G.; PRADO, F. B.; BOTACIN, P. R. & CARIA, P. H. F. Incidence of retromolar foramen in human mandibles: ethnic and clinical aspects. Int. J. Morphol., 30(3):1074-1078, 2012.