In Vitro Macroscopic and Endoscopic Analysis of Three-Rooted Maxillary Premolars and Two-Rooted Mandibular Premolars in the Same Individual: a Case Report

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Daniel Aracena; Victor Beltrán; Ramón Fuentes & Eduardo Borie


The recent addition of endoscopy in dental practice has enabled clinicians to have an excellent view of the operative field, yielding highly successful visualization of anatomical structures that are difficult to access, both in oral surgery and endodontics. The purpose of this report is to provide an in vitro macroscopic, radiographic, and endoscopic description of the anatomic variation of the roots of maxillary and mandibular first premolars in the same patient. A 22-year-old patient was referred by an orthodontist for the extraction of all the first premolars. Once extracted, the premolars were examined macroscopically and then analyzed radiographically after trepanation and filled root canal systems. Subsequently, a diaphanization process was carried out and the samples were sectioned at the middle and apical third for observation by endoscope. It was found that both the maxillary first premolars had three roots, and mandibular first premolars had two roots, all with complete root formation. Apical deltas or accessory canals were not identified in the radiographic images; however, through endoscope at the middle third, it was possible to observe an accessory canal to the first maxillary and mandibular right premolars. Thus, it can be concluded that the view through the endoscope allows better identification of accessory canals than X-rays.

KEY WORDS: Premolars; Tooth roots; Root canal; Endoscopy.

How to cite this article

ARACENA, D.; BELTRÁN, V.; FUENTES, R. & BORIE, E. In vitro macroscopic and endoscopic analysis of three-rooted maxillary premolars and two-rooted mandibular premolars in the same individual: a case report. Int. J. Morphol., 30(1):19-24, 2012.