Gustavo Adolfo Compeán-Martínez; Rodolfo Morales-Avalos; Félix Vílchez-Cavazos; Carlos Acosta-Olivo; Oscar Fernando Mendoza-Lemus; Oscar de la Garza-Castro; Rodrigo E. Elizondo-Omaña & Santos Guzmán-López
To determine viable anatomical landmarks allowing for accurate femoral and tibial tunnel placement in anatomical position during posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. Ten knees were dissected to analyze femoral and tibial PCL insertion measurements and the features specific to the PCL and its fascicles. The clock hands system was used to measure femoral insertions. The meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were used as landmarks to measure tibial insertions. The PCL and its corresponding fascicle characteristics were determined by its femoral insertion, central portion and tibial insertion. The mean lengths between the central point of the PCL footprint and the articular cartilage border at 12:00 h were 17.23 mm (±3.94) and 17.73 mm (±4.11) for the right and left knees, respectively. The anterior-posterior mean lengths for the PCL were 11.94 mm (±5.08) between the posterior PCL border and the anterior PCL border. The mean lengths were 33.52 mm (±3.49) from the medial border of the lateral meniscus to the lateral PCL border and 32.24 mm (±2.28) from the medial border of the medial meniscus to the medial PCL border. From the anteroposterior viewpoint, the anterolateral fascicle is greater than the posteromedial one in its femoral and tibial insertions and in its central portion. A quantitative data collection summary was conducted with different PCL variables, along with its fascicles and their various femoral and tibial bony landmarks. Various measurements were obtained, indicating the high functionality shared by the PCL fascicles. Lengths reported for insertions are practical landmarks for the locations of femoral and tibial tunnels during posterior cruciate ligament plasty. We must take into account native PCL form to avoid oversizing the graft during reconstruction and to avoid a possible clamping of the graft with the surrounding structures.
KEY WORDS: Posterior cruciate ligament; Femoral tunnels; Reconstruction; Anatomy; Landmark.
How to cite this article
COMPEÁN-MARTÍNEZ, G. A.; MORALES-AVALOS, R.; VÍLCHEZ-CAVAZOS, F.; ACOSTA-OLIVO, C.; MENDOZA- LEMUS, O. F.; GARZA-CASTRO, O.; ELIZONDO-OMAÑA, R. E. & GUZMÁN-LÓPEZ, S. Anthropometric landmarks for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in anatomical position. Int. J. Morphol., 33(2):678-684, 2015.